CCT Database has been updated

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The Chinese Christian Texts Database has been updated. Please visit:


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The Chinese Christian Texts Database (CCT-Database) is a research database of primary and secondary sources concerning the cultural contacts between China and Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (from 1582 to ca. 1840). The cultural contacts comprise documents in the various fields of cultural interaction: religion, philosophy, science, art, etc.


It was the late Professor Erik Zürcher (1928-2008) who took the initiative of compiling a bibliographical list of Chinese primary sources concerning Christianity in China in the seventeenth century. Since the 1980s, Ad Dudink and Nicolas Standaert have continued and elaborated the project and converted the data thus far collected into an online research database. In that form it will be an on-going project, which makes it possible to continually add new sources and to update, revise or expand the description of sources already included.


The database is set up as a research database, both in regard to its content and search possibilities. The description of primary sources, divided into Chinese and European primary sources, is intended as to be extensive and to allow for multiple links. In addition to the usual bibliographical references such as title, author, impressum or reprints, these references include: a content description, the mentioning of call numbers in major library collections, references to translations or secondary sources, and various notes on the author or text history. The database is multi-lingual in the sense that there are references to documents and publications in a wide variety of ancient and modern Asian and European languages. The primary and secondary sources are given a thematic category, which basically follows the categorisation of the Handbook of Christianity in China : Volume One (635-1800), Leiden: Brill, 2000. For an overview of the categories, click “Categories” on the navigation bar at the top of the homepage.


The database is divided in "primary" and "secondary" sources. The primary sources are ca. 1.050 Chinese and ca. 4.000 European documents dating from roughly the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Chinese sources include printed books, manuscripts, pamphlets and maps; European sources are so far only printed documents (printed books, chapters in books, etc.). There are over 8.000 secondary sources, which, if applicable, are linked to the primary sources. Searches can be made in the whole database, or in the primary or secondary sources separately. As much as possible the data are linked to the original sources, in so far these appear on public websites (notice that sometimes the address changes and the link is interrupted).


The access to the database is free. You may also freely use its content, but on condition that you acknowledge it in the following way: Ad Dudink & Nicolas Standaert, Chinese Christian Texts Database (CCT-Database) (


The description of sources, especially primary sources, is still incomplete and therefore the authors will continuously insert further details and update existing descriptions. If you want to propose additions or point out mistakes, please send us a mail via ‘Contact’. Substantial addenda or corrigenda will be acknowledged in the 'notes on author', 'notes on contents' or 'notes on text history'.


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