楊習超:《近代中國教會大學中籍校長角色沖突研究》(苏州大学博士论文,2016)

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楊習超:《近代中國教會大學中籍校長角色沖突研究》(苏州大学博士论文,2016)
Research on the Role Conflicts of Chinese Presidents at China’s Christian Colleges

【作者】 楊習超;

【導師】 周川;

【作者基本信息】 蘇州大學, 高等教育學, 2016, 博士

【摘要】 十九世紀中后期,近代中國高等教育在西學東漸的潮流中發軔、發展,西方傳教士在華創辦的教會大學憑借人、財、物及文化資源優勢,在中國的高等教育舞臺扮演起重要角色。清末的中國社會危機四伏,外族入侵頻頻,以魏源、張之洞等為代表的有識之士提出“師夷長技以制夷”、“中學為體、西學為用”等復興濟世思想,反映了當時中國社會精英階層向西看的主觀愿望。盡管教會大學與西方列強有著千絲萬縷的關系,文化侵略原罪難辭,但中國社會對西學的需求為教會大學發展提供了巨大空間。教會大學從海外募集捐贈,在華購產、置地,建學校、開醫院,以慈善的形象贏得了眾多青年擁躉,獲得了廣泛的社會認同。清政府懾于西方列強的船堅炮利,對西方傳教士在華的辦學行為基本不干涉,任其發展。民國伊始,國人民族獨立意識高漲,“非基督教”運動和“收回教育權”運動迫使教會大學在辦學形式上作出調整和讓步,由清末自主創辦轉變為民國的注冊立案。嗣后,民國政府公布《私立學校規程》等法令,規定教會大學“須由中國人任校長”,由此揭開了教會大學中籍校長的歷史序幕。本文的研究對象中國教會大學中籍校長主要有:東吳大學楊永清,金陵大學陳裕光,燕京大學陸志韋,滬江大學劉湛恩,圣約翰大學涂羽卿,華中大學韋卓民,華西協和大學張凌高,嶺南大學鐘榮光,齊魯大學朱經農,福建協和大學林景潤,之江大學李培恩,金陵女子文理學院吳貽芳,華南女子文理學院王世靜,輔仁大學陳垣等,他們的任職時間大都在1927年至新中國建國之間。本文運用歷史制度主義方法和社會認同理論分析了近代中國教會大學中籍校長角色形成和角色沖突,從近代中國歷史制度變遷、中西文化沖突和中籍校長個體認知等方面解讀其角色沖突的原因。歷史制度主義強調社會變遷中重大事件的作用,社會認同理論則強調個體對所屬特定社會群體的會員身份及附加在該身份上的價值和情感認同。本研究把宏觀的制度因素和微觀的個體因素有機結合,得出結論如下:第一,中籍校長角色概念的特定內涵源于政府、教會和中國社會等各方賦予校長的多重身份和角色期待,他們的身份包含有中西文化、思想、制度交流與沖突的元素。第二,中籍校長在多重身份和多方期待、自我認知與社會認同中,與政府、教會和師生之間存在角色沖突。與政府之間存在校長治校與政治干預、黨化教育與基督教育、國家主義教育與公民教育等沖突;與教會的沖突表現在職業教育與人文教育、宗教目的與服務中國、西化教育與中國化教育、校長與校務長職權沖突等;與師生的沖突表現在學校管理中應對中西教師的文化和個體利益及應對學生政治活動沖突等;作為理性知識分子,中籍校長與自身價值觀和個體心理也存在沖突。第三,中籍校長角色沖突的原因體現在四個方面。一是近代中國對外開放過程中社會制度和文化沖突的結果。從清末“中體西用”教育制度的妥協性,到民國“以黨治國”的一元性,中國社會制度設計者對多極化制度是排斥的,并利用權力資源強制教會大學納入政府管理,與西方文化制度存在沖突。中籍校長角色沖突的背后,蘊藏著資源和權力的爭奪。二是中籍校長的教育家身份與教會組織代理人身份的不可調和性。中籍校長多畢業于教會學校,受宗教理念影響,對教會有深厚的情感認同,被教會賦予在華事業繼承者的角色身份。他們在自我認知和社會認同過程中,存在著與教會董事會、與政府、與教會大學師生的沖突,反過來,正是在這些沖突中,形成了中籍校長的自我認知和社會認同。在中國官學傳統與現代大學獨立理念之間,中籍校長追求現代大學的自治與教會控制、政府控制之間產生沖突。三是中西文化沖突和價值觀碰撞的必然選擇。在傳統儒學與基督信仰之間,在中國身份與教會身份歸屬之間,在基督人格價值觀與官方價值觀之間,中籍校長遭遇了激烈的價值觀碰撞,作為教育者和理性的個體,其獨立人格促進他們追求理性的教育理念,包容的文化構建和“完人”情懷。他們的自我理性認知和社會認同綜合作用,導致了沖突。四是雙重辦學主體下中籍校長經濟獨立性的缺乏,使他們無法掙脫對教會經費和政府補助費的依賴。第四,中籍校長角色沖突對于理解近代中國教育理念的轉型具有歷史價值。中籍校長長校過程中面臨不同的利益、資源沖突,堅持“師夷長技”之西學教育,大力推進理性人格之道德教育,即便在經濟困頓、顛沛流離的戰爭年代,他們充分發揮個人的教育家智慧和獻身教育精神,溝通中西文化,調節中西沖突,提升辦學績效,保持了教會大學在國內外文化教育舞臺的卓越地位,彰顯近代中國社會制度變遷背景下,教會大學中籍校長所引領的思想理性和精神自由之獨特價值。第五,中籍校長角色沖突對于理解現代大學的歷史發展具有現實意義。近代中國大學建制的發展過程是不斷擺脫古代官學影響而逐步引入西方現代大學模式的過程,是對大學的本質不斷探索和理解不斷深化的過程。中籍校長是西式教育的成果,他們在求學和長校過程中形成了個人價值觀體系,一方面堅持教育救國,另一方面追求大學自治和獨立,有效平衡東西文化沖突,帶領教會大學突破時代局限性,對今天的雙一流大學建設在制度上有寶貴的現實意義。本文的創新點與理論貢獻有:1.文獻搜集與梳理。作者先后到國家圖書館、北京大學圖書館、上海檔案館、中國第二歷史檔案館、華中師范大學章開沅研究中心和耶魯大學神學院圖書館等地,搜集、整理了十多位教會大學中籍校長的個人信件、著述等歷史文獻,詳細考證了中籍校長的成長背景及職務履行情況,并由此來分析教會大學中籍校長與近代中國社會、政府及西方教會之間的關系,為中國教會大學中籍校長角色沖突研究奠定文獻基礎。本文采用了以往研究中未涉及到的第一手文獻,彌補了前人研究在文獻方面的不足。2.研究視角與方法。本文運用歷史制度主義方法和社會認同理論,給予中籍校長角色特定的理論梳理和概念界定,在宏觀層面將中籍校長角色放入近代中國歷史大環境中考量;在微觀層面將中籍校長角色置于利益、資源、制度等相互關系中進行研究。本文從多層面、多視角進行綜合分析,彌補了前人在研究視角和研究方法上的欠缺。3.研究結論。本研究認為中國社會權力在教育制度形成和運行中占有絕對地位,從科舉官學到近代大學建制的演變過程中,學校性質是中籍校長教育家不可逾越的挑戰;中籍校長基于自我的社會認同是中籍校長角色沖突的核心要素。本文突出了中籍校長自我認同與社會制度變遷之間的必然聯系,得出了區別于以往研究的結論。4.歷史思考。本文從近代中國社會制度變遷與西方文化沖擊背景出發對中籍校長群體身份、信念和價值觀進行了歷史思考,分析了他們與教會、政府、師生和社會存在的角色沖突,發現他們理性的自我認知和社會認同與近代中國的時代精神相結合,合理應對自身的身份歸屬、民族責任和歷史使命,求同存異,化解沖突,教育救國,在東西方文化交融過程中,體現了教育家的價值取向與人格追求。 還原

【Abstract】 The second half of the 19 th century witnessed the threshold of China’s higher education in response to the Disemmination of Western Learning permeating towards oriental countries, while China broke the fetters of her age-long exclusiveness and opened to the West. A dozen of Christian colleges established by western missionaries assumed a predominant role on the stage of China’s higher education, owing to their advantage of academic talents and financial abundance.On the surface, it was the unequal treaties that escorted western missionaries to spread their religion in China; on a deep insight, however, it was the Chinese expectation of western education that virtually rendered scope for the foreign colleges to thrive in China. At the turn of the 20 th century, China was plagued with crises in all corners of society, a recurrence of corruptive feudalist system impending. Due to their alien religious background and ethnic connections with the western invaders, the Christian colleges were subject to a fierce denouncement of original sin. In the meantime, China’s frustrations and humiliations in confrontation against Western powers, and Japan’s challenges awakened both the bureaucratic officials in the government and the wise minds of the time. Some “Nationalist” thinkers and liberal officials like Wei Yuan and Zhang Zhidong proposed the ideas of “learning advancement from the West”, “Chinese knowledge being the body, Western technologies only for use”, manifesting the objective demands that China should open to the West. Christian missionaries raised their ideology of “Love & Service”, collected large amounts of donations, purchased land in many cities of China, built schools and hospitals, and developed higher education across China. Their charitable images laid a solid foundation for a large-scale recognition among Chinese people, winning zealous fans of youth and establishing a positive social identity.For one thing, the Christian colleges projected a contrasting image to the “Imperial Examination System” of China for political purposes, a fresh idea of the Jesuit’s love, sacrifice, and service. For another, awed by the military power of westerners and expecting a loan of western technology, the Ch’ing Court did not intervene in the affairs of Christian colleges. As the Republic of China’s government was set up, there arose the New Cultural movement, Anti-Christianity movement, launching a national call for Withdrawal of Rights to Education. Official laws like “Regulations of Privately-Owned Schools” and “Regulations of Board for Private-Owned Schools”, were issued and the Christian colleges began their registration at the new Guomintang government. The key requirement was that Chinese scholars should be Presidents at the Christian colleges. As a result, the Chinese Presidents of Christian colleges rose onto the stage of modern higher education in the history of recent China.The research centred on such Chinese Presidents as Yang Yongqing, Wu Yifang, Chen Yuguang, Lu Zhiwei, Wei Zhuomin, Zhang Linggao, Liu Zhan’en, Li Pei’en, Lin Jingrun, Wang Shijing, Zhu Jingnong, and so on. Their presidency mainly spanned the period from 1927 to the foundation of People’s Republic of China.The research adopted the theories of Social Identity and Historical Institutionalism to sort out the relevant factors accounting for the role formation and role conflicts of the Chinese Presidents. Historical Institutionalism emphasizes upon the effect of major events in the course of social change, and institution innovation under the drive of revolution, war, social trends, political ideas, and the like. Social identity is part of an individual’s self-concept which originates from his knowledge of his membership of a social group, together with the value and emotional significance attached to that membership.The research arrived at such conclusions: first of all, a scientific and logical interpretation is made on the role conflict of Chinese Presidents in terms of historical institutionalism, and social identity perspective; secondly, the institutional and cultural evolution contributed to the role conflicts of the Chinese President’s official mode confronting with modern universities. Third, the representative identity of the Presidents goes incompatiable with the office, and the pursuit of academic independence and self-governance met with contradictions in China, resulting in the factual role conflict with the Chinese Presidents. Fourth, it was the Chinese Presidents’ self cognition and social identity that determined the occurrence of their role conflicts. The Chinese Presidents pursued a rational and idealistic way of education, accentuating the sense of cultural and human belonging. The Christian churches managed to maintain their religious system, whereas the government compulsively aimed to control the talents. In confrontation, the Chinese Presidents held their particular social identity out of their special experience; they responded wisely and rationally to the conflict, taking into consideration the relationship between religious character education and modern practical education, and promoting the Christian colleges onto the route of Chinization. They worshiped the positive culture of Christianity and challenged the sterotyped orthodoxy thought in China in response to the control from both the Western religious groups and the government. Fifth, lacking independent finance under the duel administration organizations rendered the Chinese Presidents’ passive subordination to the outside factors.The research secured such academically innovative progresses as follows: First, the author tracked down multitudes of first-hand archives on the Chinese Presidents through libraries home and abroad, setting up an objectively scientific research upon the role conflicts of Chinese Presidents in China’s Christian colleges, disclosing the logical relationship among the Presidents’ s role play, the performance of Western Church, and the authoring activities of China’s government, accentuating the multi-active and dynamic developing perspective. Second, the role conflict of Chinese Presidents is approached from the historical institutionalism perspective and social identity theory. Third, the concept of role conflict is illustrated based on the multi-aspect relations with the Christian missions and Chinese government. Fourth, the research put forward creative conclusions that four dimensions are to be considered in perceiving the underlying causes of the Role Conflicts, namely, the evolution of social intititutions, individual cognition and social identity belonging, as well as the dependent factor of financial resources. 還原
【關鍵詞】 中國教會大學; 中籍校長; 角色沖突; 歷史制度主義; 社會認同;
【Key words】 China’s Christian Colleges; Chinese Presidents; Role Conflicts; Historical Institutionalism; Social Identity;
【網絡出版投稿人】 蘇州大學
【分類號】G647.1

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