吳戈:《艾儒略思想研究》(南京大学博士论文,2016)

  • A+
所属分类:最新论文

吳戈:《艾儒略思想研究》(南京大学博士论文,2016)
Study on Aleni’s Thought

【作者】 吳戈;

【導師】 許蘇民;

【作者基本信息】 南京大學, 歷史學, 2016, 博士

【摘要】 對于明清之際的中國思想史研究來說,耶穌會士來華以及相伴而來的儒耶對話是一個不可回避的重要問題。在這一時期,大量耶穌會士來華,希望在中國宣揚天主的福音,在這一西學東漸的過程中,耶穌會士帶來的西方天主教文化,與傳統中國的儒家文化,二者之間產生了充分的交流。仔細考察這一時期儒耶對話可以發現,雖然雙方的理論背景和知識體系都存在差異,但這些因素并沒有成為雙方交流的障礙,雙方的對話也大都能夠在一個平等的語境下進行。其中,意大利籍耶穌會士艾儒略,以及其在福建傳教過程中與奉教者、對待西學的溫和派人士及反教人士之間的對話,尤其值得注意。本文希望通過對艾儒略中文著述的相關內容,以及其與中國人士的對話狀況,來對其思想體系進行一個詳細的探討。本文共分為八個部分:引論部分,從宏觀的角度對明清之際的中西方文化交流狀況作簡要的概述,并對相關學術史內容——包括西方漢學界的相關研究成果,我國港臺學者和內地學者的相關研究成果——進行概括性的回顧。在這一基礎上,指出了前輩學者在研究過程中的空白之處,希望能夠站在前人的肩膀上對艾儒略思想做出進一步的探討。第二部分是對艾儒略入華之后的經歷和著述狀況的研究。由于文獻方面的原因,艾儒略入華之后的經歷,尤其是1613年至1624年這一時間段內的行程經歷究竟如何,學界并沒有形成定論。筆者通過對相關文獻的比較研讀,以及對各個地方志內容的記載,對艾儒略生平交游中的若干關節點問題和相關重要人物的事跡作了縝密的考證,相對清楚地描繪出這一時期艾儒略具體的行程經歷。第三部分是對艾儒略入華之后思想變化的探討。在入華之后的三十余年間,艾儒略經歷了南京教案與福建教案這兩次嚴重的政治事件,這種經歷對其思想也產生了一定程度的影響。就前者而言,在南京教案后艾儒略有意識地將政治的合理性問題融入到天主教學說當中;而就后者,艾儒略則明顯地表現出了傳教對象和重心的轉變,即由主要對知識階層的傳教轉變為主要對下層百姓的傳教。第四部分是對艾儒略思想兩個主要維度的探討。從艾儒略的中文著述來看,其構建的天主教學說主要可以分為“性學”與“超性之學”兩個部分。前者主要關注現實,討論的是人如何認識自身的問題,后者主要聚焦于宗教,討論的是人如何認識天主的問題。這兩個思想維度相輔相成,共同組成了一套完整的天主教思想體系。不僅如此,對于艾儒略而言,其自小接受的宗教背景是其對“超性之學”方面的內容更加重視,并希望能夠在與中國人士的對話中對之加以重點的宣揚。第五部分以《三山論學記》為個案,考察了艾儒略與傳統儒者階層的對話。在三山論學中,艾儒略試圖向葉向高介紹天主教神學的相關理論,但葉向高對這些神學問題缺乏興趣,反而數次希望與艾儒略討論現實世界中的道德善惡問題。對于葉向高而言,相比于純粹神學的問題,現實善惡和道德問題更加值得注意。葉向高對于天主教的看法可以在很大程度上代表許多傳統儒者的看法,這也因此影響到了艾儒略在福建地區的傳教思想。從艾儒略與福建地區儒者的往來贈詩看,在福建儒者眼中,天主教理論中的道德學說得到了廣泛的關注,這無疑是艾儒略主動調整傳教思想導致的結果。第六部分以《口鐸日抄》、《圣夢歌》、《五十言余》等艾儒略的中文著述為核心,考察了艾儒略與福建地區奉教者的對話。在日常的宗教宣揚中,艾儒略等耶穌會士一方面向奉教者宣傳天主教理論中的宗教性內容,同時也對奉教者的道德行為提出了嚴格的要求,并重點強調了這一道德修養與宗教信仰之間的關系。在艾儒略等耶穌會士的努力下,福建地區的奉教者對個人道德修養給與了廣泛的關注,并為《圣夢歌》、《五十言余》等艾儒略的道德著作撰寫序言。第七部分以艾儒略的弟子李九標為個案,通過對其與艾儒略的對話,以及其著作《枕書》中的相關內容的研究,來探討艾儒略思想的影響。作為《口鐸日抄》的整理者,李九標是福建地區奉教者群體的領袖,同時又是傳統儒者文化圈內的重要人物之一,其組織門人友朋編撰的《枕書》被學界認為主要是對傳統儒學原則的闡述。但通過對《枕書》相關內容的探討,可以看出,《枕書》中的內容不僅代表了傳統儒學的諸多原則,同時也是對天主教道德學說的總結與歸納。在與艾儒略等耶穌會士的對話中,李九標就對天主教道德學說有著濃厚的興趣,并對這些道德原則努力踐行。這就意味著,對于李九標而言,《枕書》中的內容,不啻為傳統儒學與天主教在道德倫理層面的統一。結論部分對艾儒略福建地區的傳教過程,以及以其為核心的儒耶對話內容進行了總結與歸納,指出:雖然在天主教與傳統儒學之間存在著一定程度的分歧,但無論是以艾儒略為代表的耶穌會士,還是以葉向高為代表的溫和人士,亦或是以李九標為代表的奉教者,他們都沒有過多地強調這種分歧,而是本著一種求同存異的態度來思考中西文化的共通性內容。經過思考與討論,儒耶對話的雙方發現了這樣一個事實,即:雖然中西方文化有著理論背景和知識體系的差異,但二者都推崇一種普世性的道德倫理,并在現實行為方面提出了理性的要求。這樣一來,東西方文化對這種普世道德價值的認可,就構成了艾儒略,以及許多耶穌會士與中國人士展開交流的基礎,而之后雙方的深層次交流,也正是建立在這樣一種共識的基礎之上。 還原

【Abstract】 For the cultural exchange between China and the West in Ming and Qing Dynasties Jesuit scholar in China and the attendant Confucian dialogue is a problem that can not be avoided. In this period, a large number of Jesuit scholar in China, hope in China to preach God’s gospel, in this process, Jesus will bring scholar of Western Christian culture, and the Chinese traditional Confucian culture, between the two produced a full exchange. Carefully examine these Confucian Christian dialogue can be found, although there are differences in both theoretical background and knowledge system, but these factors did not become barriers to exchanges between the two sides, this period of Confucian Christian Dialogue, mostly to in an egalitarian context, the Italian born Jesus will judg Aleni, and its in Fujian missionary to serve teaching, moderates, and anti Christianity Dialogue between people, particularly noteworthy. We hope that through this contents related to Aleni Chinese writings, as well as the Chinese people and dialogue situation, to a detailed discussion on the ideological system.This paper is divided into eight parts. The introduction part of the Ming and Qing Dynasties from a macro point of view in Western cultural exchanges do a simple overview, and makes a general review of the relevant academic history content. On this basis, pointed out that the scholars in the process of research gaps.The second part is a brief review of Aleni into China after personal experience and writing status. Because of the reason of the literature, Giulio Aleni into China after the experience, especially in 1613 to 1624 the time period of the travel experience and academic conclusion is not formed. Based on the relevant literature comparative reading, and of various contents of the local history records, relative clearly depict this period Aleni specific travel experience.The third part is to discuss after Aleni into China ideological changes. In into China after more than 30 years, Giulio Aleni experience the Nanjing Massacre and the Fujian lesson plans the two serious political events, the experience of his thought also produced a certain degree of influence. In terms of the former, in the Nanjing Massacre Aleni have consciousness of the rationality of political centralization into Catholic doctrine; and the latter, Aleni is evidently the missionary object and center of gravity shift, namely the main mission of the intelligentsia change as the main mission of the lower people.The fourth part is a discussion on Aleni thought. From the works of Giulio Aleni Chinese point of view, the construction of the Catholic doctrine can be divided into "sex" and "Super Science" two parts. The former is mainly concerned with the reality, the discussion is how to understand their own problems, the latter is mainly aimed at religion, discussion of how people know God’s question. These two dimensions of thought complement each other and form a complete set of Catholic ideology. Not only so, for Aleni, the child to accept religious background is pay more attention to the content of "super sex, and hope to be able to with the dialogue of the Chinese people to focus on the spread.The fifth part of the "theory of mind" three case study, and the traditional Confucian Aleni class dialogue. In Sanshan on science, Giulio Aleni tried to introduce theory of Catholic theology to Ye Xianggao, but ye Xianggao of these theological problems lack of interest, but several times to discuss the question of moral good and evil in the real world and Giulio Aleni. For Xianggao leaves, compared to pure theology, and reality and moral problems deserves more attention. Ye Xianggao for Catholic views can represent many of the traditional Confucian Views in a large extent, which affect the Aleni in Fujian area mission theory. From the exchanges of Aleni and Fujian Confucian presents as a gift the poem, in the eyes of the Fujian Confucian, moral teachings of the Catholic theory has been widespread concern, which is no doubt Aleni active adjustment of missionary thoughts lead to results.In the sixth part kouduo richao, "St. dreams song", "fifty words more than" Aleni’s Chinese writings as the core, poor exam Aleni and the Fujian area to serve the teaching dialogue. In daily religious preaching in Aleni. And Jesus will scholar to serve teach propagandist Catholic idea of religious content and also to serve the teaching of moral behavior and puts forward strict requirements, and emphasis on the relationship between the moral and religious beliefs. Efforts in Jesus Aleni such as fellow, Fujian area serve to teach of personal moral accomplishment given extensive attention, and for the holy dream songs, "fifty words more than" Aleni’s moral work to write a preface.The seventh part to Aleni’s disciple Li Jiubiao as a case study, through the Aleni dialogue, and his works "pillow book" related to the content of the research, to explore the Aleni thought influence. Kouduo richao as finishing, Li Jiubiao is Fujian area offer to teach the leader of the group, and it is also one of the key figures in the traditional Confucian cultural circle, the disciple Youpeng compiled "pillow book" scholars believe is mainly expounded the principle of traditional Confucianism. However, through the discussion of the relevant content of "pillow book", it can be seen that the content of "pillow book" not only represents the principles of traditional Confucianism, but also the summary and induction of the Catholic moral theory. In conversation with Julio Aleni, Jesus will, Li Jiubiao is the moral teachings of the Catholic has a keen interest in, and of these moral principles to practice. This means that, for the Li Jiubiao. "Pillow book" content, akin to traditional Confucianism and Catholicism in the unity of moral and ethical level. Conclusion part of Fujian area Aleni preached, and the core of Confucian Christian Dialogue content were summary and induction, points out that although there are certain differences between the Catholic and traditional Confucianism, but whether it is represented by Aleni Jesuits, or to Ye Xianggao as representative of the moderates, or to Li Jiubiao for representatives to serve teaching, they have not been much emphasized the differences, but the spirit of a attitude to seek common ground to think about common content of Chinese and Western culture. After thinking and discussion, the Confucian Christian Dialogue both sides found such a fact, namely:although total and Western culture is the theoretical background and knowledge system of difference, but both are respected, a universal moral ethics and realistic behavior in the proposed requirements of rationality. As a result, East West cultural recognition of the universal value, constitutes the Aleni, and many Jesuit scholars and Chinese people communicate based, and after the two sides of the deep communication is built on the basis of such a consensus. 還原
【關鍵詞】 明清之際; 艾儒略; 思想研究; 儒耶對話; 普世道德; 中西方文化交流;
【Key words】 Ming and Qing Dynasties; Aleni; thought; Confucianism and Christianity Dialogue; universal ethics; exchanges between China and West;
【網絡出版投稿人】 南京大學 【網絡出版年期】2016年 12期
【分類號】B978;K248

发表评论

:?: :razz: :sad: :evil: :!: :smile: :oops: :grin: :eek: :shock: :???: :cool: :lol: :mad: :twisted: :roll: :wink: :idea: :arrow: :neutral: :cry: :mrgreen: